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Advances in the production and propagation of transgenic goats using laparoscopic ovum pick-up and in vitro embryo production technologies.
Furthermore, laparoscopic surgery is technically more complicated to perform, and its success may be influenced by the experience of the surgical team.
Decisions about the use of laparoscopic repair depend on whether the benefits outweigh the extra costs and intraoperative risks.
This has associated morbidity and mortality, although laparoscopic methods are making it a more attractive option particularly in the older population.
One important event associated with laparoscopic surgery that was not modeled explicitly, owing to a lack of useable data, was the effect of conversion.
Cost estimates of slings, injectables, and laparoscopic colposuspension were calculated by using published data on average length of stay and operation time for these procedures.
It is also likely that laparoscopic resection has some short-term advantages in terms of recovery in the postoperative period (12).
A recent retrospective review compared the outcomes of open or laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy versus endoscopic stenting for malignant gastric outlet obstruction.
As with all laparoscopic surgery, there is a learning curve and a long operating time may be needed initially, but this usually decreases with experience.
The increase since the late 1980s coincided with the introduction of minimally invasive procedures, especially laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
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